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Within the psychoanalytical movement, a fundamental critique came from C. Jung believed that this was too much centred on sexuality. Although Jung agreed with Freud over a link between the nutritive and sexual function of libido, Jung saw libido as a form of energy that changed its function during childhood.

By the end of this phase, libido eventually would be stripped of all the characteristics and functions it showed during early infancy.


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Perversions, then, would be the consequence of an incomplete or disrupted change of function in libido. Most psychologists had rejected Freudian psychoanalysis until this point. In a polemical and intellectually sharp analysis, William Stern, for instance, professor of psychology at Breslau University and at the time more prominent than Freud, criticised the application of psychoanalytical theories to infants and children. He accused psychoanalysts of going much too far by detecting something sexual everywhere and in everyone.

This would lead to, as he called it, an Entharmlosung of sexuality making sexuality not harmless or innocent in the young. If a child showed signs of precocious sexual interests, Stern considered this pathological. Like Jung and Stern, Kraus suspected that much of psychoanalysis was based on projections. In , Kraus broke with Freud — the immediate reason was the conflict with Wittels — and from then on, commented with biting irony on the psychoanalytical movement.

She criticised the fact that psychoanalysis ignored serious methodological problems when exploring infant and childhood sexual experiences, because one could not draw any analogies between their experiences and those of adults. This was exactly what, in her view, psychoanalysts were guilty of doing.

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Therefore, sexual behaviour in children could not be interpreted from an adult perspective but had to be understood in its own right. Both masturbation in infancy and sexual activities between children were, in her view, neither common nor frequent. Freud and his fellow psychoanalysts did everything to defend their psychoanalytical understanding of infant and childhood sexuality. From both of their accounts, one gets a very good impression of how much they disliked each other.

After the death in of Krafft-Ebing, Moll was amongst the best-known sexologists in Europe. The critique of Moll by psychoanalysts quickly gained force. The nineteenth-century approach that had pathologised sexual feelings and activities of children — or, to be more precise, feelings and activities that were perceived as being of a sexual nature — had become obsolete. However, contrasting theories and explanations, as well as open questions, persisted.

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Freud and other psychoanalysts, for instance, continued to discuss the detrimental effects of masturbation for at least the following two decades, whereas Moll could not see such pathological effects. Moll and other researchers at the time eg. Ellis and later on eg. Intellectuals, writers and artists were obsessed with a sexualised understanding of children, in particular of girls before puberty.

The position of C. Jung is ambiguous. However, by contrast, Stern rejected any notion of a normal sexuality in children, and Jung perceived the first three to five years of infanthood as a non-sexual phase. Freud and the Discovery of Child Sexuality. History of Childhood Quarterly. Cologne: Hohenheim, I am using here the revised German edition. Critical Inquiry. Frankfurt: Fischer, Geschichte des privaten Lebens , Vol. Jahrhundert Frankfurt: Campus, Hurley trans. Das Saugen an den Fingern, Lippen etc.

Ueber Coitus im Kindesalter: Eine hygienische Studie. Zur Psychologie in der Vita sexualis. Instead, he assumed that the sexual drive in childhood was not always undifferentiated, as in some cases a heterosexual tendency in childhood remained heterosexual after puberty, and likewise a homosexual tendency continued after puberty ibid. Although having interviewed many people, Moll was unable to find out which of the two developed first more often, but presumed that in most cases the impulse to touch the genitals, the Detumescenztrieb , developed first ibid.

This would be supported by the observations of the Italian psychiatrist and director of the asylum in Catanzaro, Silvio Venturi — , who, according to Moll, suggested that temporary masturbation could be explained physiologically, Silvio Venturi, Le degenerazioni psico-sessuali nella vita degli individui e nella storia delle societa Turin: Bocca, , 6—8. Speyer reported of several cases of children showing passionate feelings of love, jealousy and hatred towards other children or adults in letters, R. Moll referred to pages 6, —2, and —5.

Moll referred here to a case of a one-and-a-half-year-old girl who was seen playing at her genitals with her fingers, ibid. Moll did not make any reference to the emerging endocrinological literature. However, Moll made a distinction between the two drives. The detumescence-impulse, he thought, was a direct consequence of the gonads, at least in men, whereas in women during intercourse the detumescence-impulse was separated from the functioning of the gonads. The contrectation-impulse, in contrast, he interpreted as an indirect consequence of the gonads that could only be understood from an evolutionary perspective in relation to the purpose of the genitals ibid.

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Moll explained this indirect effect of the gonads as excitement Erregung stemming from the testicles or ovaries. This excitement, however, he understood to be probably independent from the secretion of semen or from ovulation ibid. See Moll, op. Moll and Krafft-Ebing regularly corresponded Sulloway, ibid. See also Sulloway, op. He also collected a large number of picture postcards and had photographs taken of young girls he favoured and admired, many of them in the nude and put on display on the walls of his room in the Grabenhotel where he lived. Hans Christian Kosler ed.

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The child—woman came into fashion. There was thirst after immaturity.

Das Weibkind kam in Mode. Man lechzte nach Unreife. In he came into conflict with the law when he was accused of sexually molesting and abusing underage girls in the Vienna Forest; Werkner, op. It is not clear who the author was, but Felix Salten — , the author of Bambi , has been alleged to have written the novel, although he had denied this.


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  8. See K. One of the most famous examples was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson Lewis Carroll and his fascination with young girls, whom he photographed in the nude from the late s. Some scholars eg. Imhof and D. Roberts trans. London: Reaktion, ch. Paul trans. London: Allen, , repr. Die Kinderfehler.

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    Bell had been a student of G. Stanley Hall cf. Moll, ibid.

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    Moll repeated his criticism of Freud several times throughout his study, see, for example, idem op. London: Max, , — and — Bleuler saw himself standing somewhere between Freud and Jung in this respect but leaning more towards Freud; Shamdasani, ibid. On the strained relationship between Stern and Freud and other psychoanalysts, ibid. Ein Protest. On the relationship between Kraus and Freud, Wagner, op. A few days before the meeting, Freud had made a similar negative comment in a letter to C.

    Jung , Ralph Manheim and R. Hull trans. Sulloway, op.