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Other edible fruits include other plant tissues; [51] for example, the fleshy part of a tomato is the walls of the pericarp. Seed dispersal by ants myrmecochory has evolved independently more than times, and is present in more than 11, plant species. It is one of the most dramatic examples of convergent evolution in biology. Carnivory has evolved multiple times independently in plants in widely separated groups. In three species studied, Cephalotus follicularis , Nepenthes alata and Sarracenia purpurea , there has been convergence at the molecular level.

Carnivorous plants secrete enzymes into the digestive fluid they produce. By studying phosphatase , glycoside hydrolase , glucanase , RNAse and chitinase enzymes as well as a pathogenesis-related protein and a thaumatin -related protein, the authors found many convergent amino acid substitutions.


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These changes were not at the enzymes' catalytic sites, but rather on the exposed surfaces of the proteins, where they might interact with other components of the cell or the digestive fluid. The authors also found that homologous genes in the non-carnivorous plant Arabidopsis thaliana tend to have their expression increased when the plant is stressed, leading the authors to suggest that stress-responsive proteins have often been co-opted [c] in the repeated evolution of carnivory.

Phylogenetic reconstruction and ancestral state reconstruction proceed by assuming that evolution has occurred without convergence.

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Convergent patterns may, however, appear at higher levels in a phylogenetic reconstruction, and are sometimes explicitly sought by investigators. The methods applied to infer convergent evolution depend on whether pattern-based or process-based convergence is expected. Pattern-based convergence is the broader term, for when two or more lineages independently evolve patterns of similar traits. Process-based convergence is when the convergence is due to similar forces of natural selection.

Earlier methods for measuring convergence incorporate ratios of phenotypic and phylogenetic distance by simulating evolution with a Brownian motion model of trait evolution along a phylogeny. Stasis occurs when there is little evolutionary change among taxa.


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Distance-based measures assess the degree of similarity between lineages over time. Frequency-based measures assess the number of lineages that have evolved in a particular trait space. Methods to infer process-based convergence fit models of selection to a phylogeny and continuous trait data to determine whether the same selective forces have acted upon lineages. This uses the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck OU process to test different scenarios of selection. Other methods rely on an a priori specification of where shifts in selection have occurred.

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Independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages which creates analogous structures. Two succulent plant genera, Euphorbia and Astrophytum , are only distantly related, but the species within each have converged on a similar body form. Darwin's finches by John Gould. Key topics.

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Introduction to evolution Evidence of evolution Common descent Evidence of common descent. Processes and outcomes. Natural history. History of evolutionary theory. Fields and applications. Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.

Social implications. Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support. Further information: List of examples of convergent evolution. Main article: Cladistics. Main article: Atavism.

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Archived from the original PDF on The constraint characteristics of three types of parallelogram linkage unites are then discovered, which gives the corresponding equivalent representations in terms of serial mechanisms. Bulletin of JSME. JSME international journal. A, Mechanics and material engineering. C, Dynamics, control, robotics, design and manufacturing. Already have an account? Login in here. Journal home Journal issue About the journal. Published: received: February 19, Released: June 25, accepted: - [Advance Publication] Released: - corrected: -. Article overview. References Related articles 0.