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He has previously taught anatomy and embryology to students of science and veterinary medicine at the Royal Veterinary College, London. His main areas of interest are early embryo development in vivo and in vitro , embryo-maternal communication and understanding embryo mortality. He has a large volume of refereed research publications, recognised by the award of a D. Request permission to reuse content from this site. The book is written in a way that is easy to follow and understand.

The extensive use of illustrations throughout the book makes it a great learning tool, especially for concepts that are difficult to visualize One of the major improvements in this edition is the incorporation of color in the illustrations, which greatly enhances the interpretation of the images.

The content is comprehensive, authoritative, logically organized, and amply complemented with color illustrations that are generous in size and generally effective in highlighting stages of embryo development.

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Those illustrations are also available from a companion website" Additionally, the book highlights molecular details of gene expression, stem cell lineage related to twinning, and a comprehensive description of hematopoietic development. This book is a good value for the price. I highly recommend it as the best available resource for information related to veterinary embryology. As a textbook, students will appreciate the key points and color illustrations" Reviewed by Thomas F. Has gonadal tissues of both sexes Define false or pseudohermaphrodite Has gonads of one sex only and alteration of one or more other sexual characteristics.

Define teratogen. Define teratology. Study of the advers effects of the environment on developing system Define congenital. Describe the effect of Thalidomide. What are the 4 lessons of embryology? Chromosome and implantation defects Describe the post conception embryonic loss numbers at 3 weeks. Describe the post conception embryonic loss at 8 weeks. Out of 24 normal births 1 will have a congenital malformation. Define malformation.

An intrinsic problem in embryologic differentiation or development of a structure causing it to be abnormally formed. Define deformation. Define a disruption. A structural defect resulting from the distruction of a previously formed normal structure. What happens to a pre-implanted embryo when it is damaged? Usually death. What happens to an embryo if it is damaged during organogenesis?

Organ and system susceptible to malformations What happens to a fetus is damaged? Growth retardation, structual defects or functional loss. Pricipals of teratology 1 - susceptibility depends on genetics. What are the endpoints of abnormal development? Death, malformation, deformation, disruption, growth retardation, functional disorder Define Amelia All of a limb missing. Define manidibular brachygnathia Reduced length of the mandible Define maxillary brachygnathia Maxillary region is shorter than the mandible What are other terms for the cerebral aqueduct?

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Mesencephalic aqueduct or the aqueduct of Sylvius What are the 3 layers of the neural tube? Ventricular makes ependymal cells , Mantle Gray matter , Marginal layer white matter What is the name of the canal in the spinal cord?

Central canal What creates the sensory horn? Alar plate What creates the motor horn? Basal plate Define Hydrocephalus.

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Optic vesicle forms, a thickening called the lens placode, then the vesicle becomes the optic cup, The lens pit then forms then the lens vesicle What layer is the lens vesicle made from? Surface ectoderm What makes up the cornea? Ectoderm, neural crest cells, sometimes mesenchyme What forms the optic nerve?

The optic stalk Define anophtalmia No eye formed Define Microphthalmia small eyes formed Define Congenital cataracts lens becomes opaque during fetal life Define Collie eye syndrome Coloboma; keyhole pupil What forms the inner ear?

Veterinary Embryology, 2nd edition - Anatomia, fysiologia, patologia ja embryologia - Fennovet Oy

Hypertrophic chondrocytes also produce VEGF which stimulates blood vesseldevelopment. Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column : notochord induces surrounding mesenchyme to secrete Epimorphin — a chemoattractant for scleratomal cells to move around the neural tube and notochord,coalesce and differentiate into cartilage. The scleratome cells split into two populations: a loosely packed cranial segment, and a tightly packed caudal segment.


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The caudal half of one scleratome joins with cranial half of the next to form the body of vertebra. Enables motor neurons to grow lateral and innervate newly forming muscles. Endochondral ossification occurs but from centres of vertebral body and arches. Ribs arise from segmental scleratome-derived mesenchymal condensations beside thoracic vertebrae. Distal ends of ribs grow ventral towards midline and fuse with sternal bars.

The sternal bars divide to form sternal vertebrae then undergo endochondralossification. Appendicular Skeleton Limbs : mesenchyme cells migrate from limb fields in lateral plate mesoderm and somites and form forelimb buds at 1st thoracic vertebrae due to Hox6c expression. Limb bud becomes visible as protrusion with an apical ectodermal ridge. Signalling in AER causes gradients of retinoic acid high concentrations proximally and FGFs high concentrations distally to form — which stimulate regional expression of Hox genes and the patterning of limbs.

Digit Formation — BMP 2,4,7 expression results in interdigital tissue apoptosis. Noggin expressed in digit cartilage and represses BMP expression so digits remain. Dividing myoblasts secrete FGFs and align.

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Aligned myoblasts produce myogenin which allows myoblasts fuse to form myotube which matures and forms a muscle fiber that can contract. Cardiac and Smooth Muscle — arise from splanchnic mesoderm lateral plate mesoderm originally. Pleural Cavities: pleuro-pericardial folds grow medial into L and R parts of pleuro-pericardial cavity and fuse to separate pleural from pericardial cavity.

Heart eventually loses ventral and dorsal mesocardium and is suspended in 1 pericardial cavity. Neural crest cells form septa that separate aorta from pulmonary tract. Most goes through foramen ovale into L atrium, less goes into R atrium. At birth foramen ovale closes forming completely separate atria. Right sinus horn is favoured and incorporates with right atrium. Anterior part of R-sinus horn becomes cranial vena cava and posterior part becomes caudal vena cava.

Smooth walled R-atrium from sinus venosus,original R-atrium becomes R-auricle. Final formation prevents backflow of blood from vessels into ventricles. Causes pulmonary stenosis, enlarged aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy.

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Deoxygenated blood enters aorta from R ventricle and hypertrophy caused by compensation for pulmonary stenosis. Samantha Bray 13 Ectopic Cordis — in thoracic region when opposing sides ofventral body wall fail to fuse together defective lateral body folding — heart not enclosed in pericardium — heart can be present outside the thoracic cavity — common in cattle Lucky — and can be found in neck region.

Cardiovascular II Embryo establishes blood vessels in yolk sac and allantois — allows respiration in chorioallantoic and choriovitelline membranes— process called extraembryonic vasculogenesis. Yolk sac endoderm secretes indian hedgehog signalling sphlancic mesoderm form into blood islands Extra-embryonic vasculogenesis Inner cells of blood island become blood progenitor cells rbcs, etc. Outer cells become angioblasts that form blood vessels by differentiating into endothelial cells.

Vasculogenesis in yolk sac produces vitelline and umbilical vessels that bring nutrients to embryo, gas transport,and brings blood cells from yolk sac to heart for distribution. Intra-embryonic vasculogenesis Vascular networks arise from angioblasts originating in mesodermal tissue in body.

Developing organs make paracrine factors that induce bvs to form in their mesenchyme. Allows developing vessels of capillary networks to have own special properties for that organ. Vasculogenesis: angioblasts form blood island and express VEGFR2 on surface, VEGF secretion from mesenchyme induces angioblast differentiation and their proliferation into endothelial tubes.

Angiogenesis:occurs during VEGF signalling — angiopoietin 1 in secreted by mesenchyme and binds to Tie-2 receptor now expressed on endothelial cells to initiate sprouting. Arteries extend from aorta to the allantois through the allantoic duct in the umbilicus.


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  • Xray showed a letward trachea deviation. Barium esophogramshowed a dilated and narrow portion of esophagus. Happens when aortic arch develops from R-4th-aortic arch artery, ductus arteriosus develops as normal from the L-6th-aortic arch and L part of dorsal aorta persists. Umbilical Veins: bring blood from allantois placenta and pass through umbilical cord, septumtransversumand into sinus ven osus.

    Develops into a venous shunt with cranial part of R-vitelline vein forming ductus venosus. The dv persists up to birth in carnivores, ruminants and atrophies in gestation in horses and pigs.

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    Cardinal Veins: paired, cranial cardinal v. Cranial and cau dal cardinal v. Caudal vena cava formed by parts of R-vitelline v. Lymphatic System: drains fluid and transports lymphocytes. Originally connected to cisterna chyli by lymph vessel,following anastomosis and reorganization to form thoracic duct. Blood is then directed through ductus arteriosus to caudal aorta and returns to placenta through umbilical a.

    Digestive System Digestive tract has 3 parts; foregut, midgut, hindgut — midgut is continuous with yolk sac. Circulation before birth Figure 2. Circulation after birth Samantha Bray 17 Hindgut — caudal half of transverse colon to anal canal. Blind end of foregut is apposed to ectodermal indentation in head region — called stomodeumwhich becomes the oral cavity.

    Ectodermal depression is in contact with endodermal end of hindgut — called proctodaeum.